This Day in Dayton, 21 July
During the summer of 1861, as the fighting of the Civil War began, Adam Pinkerton and a volunteer military group (perhaps the one begun at the April war meeting) met once a week in Dayton to drill. Everyone assumed the war would be short, and early enlistments were for three months. In June, western Virginia, with Northern help, broke off from Virginia and declared for the Union, in the same month the Secretary of War issued a call for troops for a three-year term. In July, as the three-month enlistments were up, every effort was made to reenlist the men for three years or the duration of the war. The Union loss at Bull Run had a sobering effect.